Walking, Turning, Wrapping, Overturning, Penetrating, Scooping, Lifting, & Depressing are the Eight Characters for the Essential Methods of Sword Training. Walking is to move using the Footwork. Turning is Left & Right Whirling Turning. Wrapping is the wrist turns inward with Wrapping Jin. Overturning is the wrist flips over & twists outward. Penetrating is going out to the Left or Right, Front or Back, Above or Below. Scooping is a Yin Hand or Yang Hand scoops upward, toward the front or rear, either in a half arc or a full circle as it extends. Lifting is the sword handle rises up. Depressing is the inside of the Hand Heart presses downward.